Published Research

Neurofeedback: Proven Studies & Their Results

Research studies proving the efficacy of neurofeedback have been conducted the world-over. Below is a list of published studies that show neurofeedback works and is helpful in all aspects of life.

Improved brain function

  • Haller, S., Kopel, R., Jhooti, P., Haas, T., Scharnowski, F., Lovblad, K. O., Scheffler, K., & Van De Ville, D. (2013). Dynamic reconfiguration of human brain functional networks through neurofeedbackNeuroimage81, 243-252.
  • Ghaziri, J., Tucholka, A., Larue, V., Blanchette-Sylvestre, M., Reyburn, G., Gilbert, G., Levesque, L., & Beauregard, M. (2013). Neurofeedback training induces changes in white and gray matterClinical EEG and neuroscience44(4), 265-272.
  • Megumi et al., 2015, F. Megumi, A. Yamashita, M. Kawato, H. Imamizu, Functional MRI neurofeedback training on connectivity between two regions induces long-lasting changes in intrinsic functional network, Front. Hum. Neurosci., Vol. 9, 2015, 160
  • Gruzelier, J. H. (2014). EEG-neurofeedback for optimising performance. I: A review of cognitive and affective outcome in healthy participants. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 44, 124-141. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2013.09.015
  • Mathiak et al., 2015, K.A. Mathiak, Social reward improves the voluntary control over localized brain activity in fMRI-based neurofeedback training, Front. Behav. Neurosci., Vol. 9, 2015, 136


  • Bennett, C. M., Lambie, G. W., Bai, H., & Hundley, G. (2022). Neurofeedback training to address college students’ symptoms of anxiety and stress: A quasi-experimental designJournal of College Student Psychotherapy36(2), 170-189.
  • Dreis, S. M., Gouger, A. M., Perez, E. G., Russo, G. M., Fitzsimmons, M. A., & Jones, M. S. (2015). Using neurofeedback to lower anxiety symptoms using individualized qEEG protocols: A pilot study. NeuroRegulation, 2, 137-148. doi:10.15540/nr.2.3.137
  • Dreis, S. M., Gouger, A. M., Perez, E. G., Russo, G. M., Fitzsimmons, M. A., & Jones, M. S. (2015). Using neurofeedback to lower anxiety symptoms using individualized qEEG protocols: A pilot study. NeuroRegulation, 2, 137-148. doi:10.15540/nr.2.3.137
  • Moss, D. (2016). Anxiety and anxiety disorders. In G. Tan, F. Shaffer, R. Lyle, & I. Teo (Eds.), Evidence-based treatment in biofeedback and neurofeedback. Association for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback (pp. 27-31). Wheat Ridge, CO.
  • New Behaviour Research and Therapy Study Findings Recently Were Reported by Researchers at University of Padua (Frontal alpha asymmetry neurofeedback for the reduction of negative affect and anxiety) Psychology & Psychiatry Journal; Atlanta 27 May 2017: 235.


  • Kim et al., 2015, D.Y. Kim, S.S. Yoo, M. Tegethoff, G. Meinlschmidt, J.H. Lee, The inclusion of functional connectivity information into fMRI-based neurofeedback improves its efficacy in the reduction of cigarette cravings, J. Cogn. Neurosci., Vol. 27, Iss. 8, 2015, 1552-1572
  • Kirsch M, Gruber I, Ruf M, Kiefer F, Kirsch P. Real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging neurofeedback can reduce striatal cue-reactivity to alcohol stimuli. Addict Biol. 2015.
  • Rostami, R; Dehghani-arani, F. Neurofeedback Training as a New Method in Treatment of Crystal Methamphetamine Dependent Patients: A Preliminary Study. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback; New York40.3 (Sep 2015): 151-161.

Athletic and Cognitive Performance

  • Sherlin, L. H., & Larson Ford, N. (2016). Biofeedback and neurofeedback in enhancing performance. In G. Tan, F. Shaffer, R. Lyle, & I. Teo (Eds.), Evidence-based practice in biofeedback and neurofeedback (3rd ed., pp. XX-XX). Wheat Ridge, CO: Association for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback.
  • Gruzelier JH. EEG-neurofeedback for optimising performance. I: a review of cognitive and affective outcome in healthy participants. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2014 ; 44 : 124 – 141. 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2013.09.015
  • Pacheco, N. C. (2016). Neurofeedback for peak performance training. journal of Mental Health Counseling, 38, 116-123. doi:10.17744/mehc.38.2.03.
  • Gruzelier, J., Egner, T., & Vernon, D. (2006). Validating the efficacy of neurofeedback for optimising performance. Progress in Brain Research, 159, 421–431. doi:10.1016/S0079-6123(06)59027-2.
  • Hammond, D. C. (2007). Neurofeedback for the enhancement of athletic performance and physical balance. The Journal of the American Board of Sport Psychology, 1, 1–9.
  • Hanslmayr, S., Sauseng, P., Doppelmayr, M., Schabus, M., & Klimesch, W. (2005). Increasing individual upper alpha power by neurofeedback improves cognitive performance in Human subjects. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 30(1), 1–10. doi:10.1007/s10484-005-2169-8.
  • Ros, T., Moseley, M. J., Bloom, P. A., Benjamin, L., Parkinson, L. A., & Gruzelier, J. H. (2009). Optimizing microsurgical skills with EEG neurofeedback. BMC Neuroscience, 10, 87. doi:10.1186/ 1471-2202-10-87.
  • Vernon, D., Dempster, T., Bazanova, O., Rutterford, N., Pasqualini, M., & Andersen, S. (2009). Alpha neurofeedback training for performance enhancement: Reviewing the methodology. Journal of Neurotherapy, 13(4), 214–227. doi:10.1080/10874200903334397.
  • Vernon, D., Egner, T., Cooper, N., Compton, T., Neilands, C., Sheri, A., & Gruzelier, J. H. (2003). The effect of training distinct neurofeedback protocols on aspects of cognitive performance. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 47, 75–85. doi:10. 1016/S0167-8760(02)00091-0.
  • Zoefel, B., Huster, R. J., & Herrmann, C. S. (2011). Neurofeedback training of the upper alpha frequency band in EEG improves cognitive performance. Neuroimage, 54, 1427–1431. doi:10. 1016/j.neuroimage.2010.08.078.



  • Walker, J. E., & Kozlowski, G. P. (2005). Neurofeedback treatment of epilepsy. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics14(1), 163-176.
  • Mayer, Kerstin; Arns, Martijn. Electroencephalogram Neurofeedback: Application in ADHD and Epilepsy. Psychiatric Annals; Thorofare46.10 (Oct 2016): 594-600.
  • Mayer, K., Arns, M. Psychiatric Annals; Electroencephalogram Neurofeedback: Application in ADHD and Epilepsy. Thorofare 46.10 (Oct 2016): 594-600.
  • Sterman, M. B., & Egner, T. (2006). Foundation and practice of neurofeedback for treatment of epilepsy. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 31(1), 21–35. doi:10.1007/s10484-006-9002-x.
  • Tan, G., Thornby, J., Hammond, D. C., Strehl, U., Canady, B., Arnemann, K., & Kaiser, D. A. (2009). Meta-analysis of EEG biofeedback in treating epilepsy. Clinical EEG and Neuro- science, 40(3), 173–179. doi:10.1177/155005940904000310.
  • Thapar, A. Cooper, M. (2016). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The Lancet; London387.10024 (Mar 19, 2016): 1240-1250.


  • Oliveira, J. (2019). Neurotherapists’ experiences of the use of neurofeedback in the treatment of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (Doctoral dissertation, University of Johannesburg (South Africa).
  • Alaros, E., Handayani, D. O. D., Yaacob, H., & Lubis, M. (2021, February). EEG Neurofeedback Training Among Adult with Attention Deficit: A Review Article. In IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering (Vol. 1077, No. 1, p. 012061). IOP Publishing.
  • Russell-Chapin, L. A., Kemmerly, T., Liu, W. C., Zagardo, M., Chapin, T., Dailey, D., & Dihn, D. (2013). The effects of neurofeedback in the default mode network: Pilot study results of medicated children with ADHD. Journal of Neurotherapy, 17, 35-42. doi: 10.1080/10874208.2 013.759017
  • Zuberer A Brandeis D Drechsler R. Are treatment effects of neurofeedback training in children with ADHD related to the successful regulation of brain activity? A review on the learning of regulation of brain activity and a contribution to the discussion on specificity. Front Hum Neurosci. 2015 ; 9 : 135. 10.3389/fnhum.2015.00135
  • Arnold LE Lofthouse N Hersch S EEG neurofeedback for ADHD: double-blind sham-controlled randomized pilot feasibility trial. J Atten Disord. 2013 ; 17 (5): 410 – 419. 10.1177/1087054712446173
  • Arns, M., de Ridder, S., Strehl, U., Breteler, M., & Coenen, A. (2009). Efficacy of neurofeedback treatment in ADHD: The effects on inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity: A meta-analysis. Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, 40, 180-189. doi:10.1177/155005940904000311
  • Beauregard, M., & Levesque, J. (2006). Functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation of the effects of neurofeedback training on the neural bases of selective attention and response inhibition in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. I, 31(1), 3–20. doi:10.1007/s10484-006-9001-y.
  • Bink, M., van Nieuwenhuizen, C., Popma, A., Bongers, I. L; van Boxtel, Geert J. Behavioral effects of neurofeedback in adolescents with ADHD: a randomized controlled trial. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry; New York24.9 (Sep 2015): 1035-1048.
  • Faraone SV Buitelaar J. Comparing the efficacy of stimulants for ADHD in children and adolescents using meta-analysis. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2010 ; 19 (4): 353 – 364. 10.1007/s00787-009-0054-3
  • Gevensleben, H., Holl. B., Albrecht, B. Neurofeedback training in children with ADHD: 6-month follow-up of a randomised controlled trial. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2010 ; 19 (9): 715 – 724. 10.1007/s00787-010-0109-5
  • Fuchs, T., Birbaumer, N., Lutzenberger, W., Gruzelier, J., & Kaiser, J., (2003). Neurofeedback treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children: A comparison with methylphenidate. Journal of Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, 28, 1-12
  • Hasslinger, J., Sirviö, S., Berggren, S., Myers, L., Flygare, O., et al. A comparative randomized controlled pragmatic trial of neurofeedback and working memory training for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: protocol. Translational Developmental Psychiatry; Stockholm4 (2016).
  • Lansbergen, M. M., van Dongen-Boomsma, M., Buite-laar, J. K., & Slaats-Willemse, D. (2011). ADHD and EEG-neurofeedback: A double-blind rando- mized placebo-controlled feasibility study. Journal of Neural Transmission, 118, 275–284. doi:10.1007/ s00702-010-0524-2.
  • Lubar, J. F. (2003). Neurofeedback for the management of attention- deficit disorders. In M. Schwartz & F. Andrasik (Eds.), Biofeedback: A practitioner’s guide (pp. 409–437). New York: The Guilford Press.
  • Mayer, K., Arns, M. Psychiatric Annals; Electroencephalogram Neurofeedback: Application in ADHD and Epilepsy. Thorofare 46.10 (Oct 2016): 594-600.
  • Mayer, K., Blume, F., Wyckoff, S. N., Brokmeier, L. L., & Strehl, U. (2016). Neurofeedback of slow cortical potentials as a treatment for adults with attention deficit-/hyperactivity disorder. Clin Neurophysiol. 2016 ; 127 (2): 1374 – 1386. 10.1016/j.clinph.2015.11.013
  • Meisel V., Servera M., Garcia-Banda G., Cardo E., & Moreno I. (2013). Neurofeedback and standard pharmacological intervention in ADHD: a randomized controlled trial with six-month follow-up . Biological Psychology 94 , 12 -21 .10.1016/j.biopsycho.2013.04.015 23665196
  • Molina, B. S., Hinshaw, S. P., & Swanson, J. M. (2009). The MTA at 8 years: prospective follow-up of children treated for combined-type ADHD in a multisite study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2009 ; 48 (5): 484 – 500. 10.1097/CHI.0b013e31819c23d0
  • Riddle, M. A., Yershova, K., Lazzaretto, D. (2013).  The Preschool Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Treatment Study (PATS) 6-year follow-up. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2013 ; 52 (3): 264 – 278.e2. 10.1016/j.jaac.2012.12.007
  • Steiner, N. J., Frenette, E. C., Rene, K. M., Brennan, R. T., & Perrin, E. C. (2014). In-school neurofeedback training for adhd: sustained improvements from a randomized control trial. Pediatrics. 2014 ; 133 (3): 483 – 492. 10.1542/peds.2013-2059
  • Strehl, U., Leins, U., Goth, G., Klinger, C., Hinterberger, T., & Birbaumer, N. (2006). Self-regulation of slow cortical potentials: a new treatment for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Pediatrics. 2006 ; 118 (5): e1530 – 1540. 10.1542/peds.2005-2478
  • van Dongen-Boomsma, M. (2014). Need, quest and evidence resting-state oscillations, neurofeedback, and working memory training in ADHD. Nijmegen: Radboud University.
  • van Dongen-Boomsma M Vollebregt MA Slaats-Willemse D Buitelaar JK. A randomized placebo-controlled trial of electroencephalographic (EEG) neurofeedback in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2013 ; 74 (8): 821 – 827. 10.4088/JCP.12m08321

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

  • Koprivova J Congedo M Raszka M Prasko J Brunovsky M Horacek J. Prediction of treatment response and the effect of independent component neurofeedback in obsessive-compulsive disorder: a randomized, sham-controlled, double-blind study. Neuropsychobiology. 2013 ; 67 (4): 210 – 223. 10.1159/000347087

Psychosomatic Symptoms

  • Windthorst P Veit R Enck P Smolka R Zipfel S Teufel M. Biofeedback and neurofeedback: applications in psychosomatic medicine and psychotherapy. Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol. 2015 ; 65 (3-4): 146 – 158. 10.1055/s-0034-1387320

Food Cravings

  • Fattahi, Samineh; Naderi, Farah; Asgari, Parviz; Ahadi, Hassan. Neuro-Feedback Training For Overweight Women: Improvement of Food Craving And Mental Health. NeuroQuantology; Bornova Izmir15.2 (2017).
  • Schmidt, J. & Martin, A. (2015). Neurofeedback Reduces Overeating Episodes in Female Restrained Eaters: A Randomized Controlled Pilot-Study. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback; New York40.4 (Dec 2015): 283-295.

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

  • LB Andersen, LB Melvaer, P Videbech, RF Lamont, JS Joergensen, Risk factors for developing post-traumatic stress disorder following childbirth: a systematic review, Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand, Vol. 91, 2012, 1261-1272
  • Ayers, Susan; McKenzie-McHarg, Kirstie; Eagle, Andrew. Cognitive behaviour therapy for postnatal post-traumatic stress disorder: case studies. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynecology; Utrecht 28.3 (Sep 2007): 177-84.

Behavioral Issues

  • Chapin, T., & Russell-Chapin, L.A. (2014). Introduction to neurotherapy and neurofeedback: Brainbased interventions for psychological and behavioral problems. New York, NY: Routledge
  • Stoeckel, L. E., Garrison, K.A., Ghosh, S., Wighton, P., Hanlon, C. A., Gilman, J. M., Greer S., et al. (2014 ) Optimizing real time fMRI neurofeedback for therapeutic discovery and development . Neuroimage Clinics 10 (5 ):245 -55.

Psychiatric Disorders

  • Cheon, E., Koo, B. Seo, W., Lee, J., Choi, J., et al. Effects of Neurofeedback on Adult Patients with Psychiatric Disorders in a Naturalistic Setting. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback; New York40.1 (Mar 2015): 17-24.
  • Diaz Hernandez, L., Rieger, K., Baenninger, A., Brandeis, D., & Koenig, T. Towards Using Microstate-Neurofeedback for the Treatment of Psychotic Symptoms in Schizophrenia. A Feasibility Study in Healthy Participants. Brain Topography; New York29.2 (Mar 2016): 308-321.


  • Escolano, C., Aguilar, M., & Minguez, J. (2011). EEG-based upper alpha neurofeedback training improves working memory per-formance. In Annual International Conference of the IEEE (pp. 2327–2330). Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. doi:10.1109/IEMBS.2011.6090651.
  • Guez, J., Rogel, A., Getter, N., Keha, E., Cohen, T., Amor, T., et al. (2014). Influence of EEG neurofeedback training on episodic memory: A randomized, sham-controlled, double blind study. Memory. doi:10.1080/09658211.2014.921713

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)

Temecula Neurofeedback Title and Logo
Temecula Neurofeedback Title and Logo
Temecula Neurofeedback Title and Logo